Year 5

  • Art

    Pupils should be taught:

    • Ar2/1.1    to create sketch books to record their observations and use them to review and revisit ideas
    • Ar2/1.2    to improve their mastery of art and design techniques, including drawing, painting and sculpture with a range of materials
    • Ar2/1.3    about great artists, architects and designers in history.
  • Computing

    Pupils should be taught to:

    • Co2/1.1    design, write and debug programs that accomplish specific goals, including controlling or simulating physical systems; solve problems by decomposing them into smaller parts
    • Co2/1.2    use sequence, selection, and repetition in programs; work with variables and various forms of input and output
    • Co2/1.3    use logical reasoning to explain how some simple algorithms work and to detect and correct errors in algorithms and programs
    • Co2/1.4    understand computer networks including the internet; how they can provide multiple services, such as the world-wide web; and the opportunities they offer for communication and collaboration
    • Co2/1.5    use search technologies effectively, appreciate how results are selected and ranked, and be discerning in evaluating digital content
    • Co2/1.6    select, use and combine a variety of software (including internet services) on a range of digital devices to design and create a range of programs, systems and content that accomplish given goals, including collecting, analysing, evaluating and presenting data and information.
    • Co2/1.7    use technology safely, respectfully and responsibly; recognise acceptable/unacceptable behaviour; identify a range of ways to report concerns about content and contact
  • D&T

    DT2/1.1    Design

    DT2/1.1a    use research and develop design criteria to inform the design of innovative, functional, appealing products that are fit for purpose, aimed at particular individuals or groups
    DT2/1.1b    generate, develop, model and communicate their ideas through discussion, annotated sketches, cross-sectional and exploded diagrams, prototypes, pattern pieces and computer-aided design

    DT2/1.2    Make

    DT2/1.2a    select from and use a wider range of tools and equipment to perform practical tasks accurately
    DT2/1.2b    select from and use a wider range of materials and components, including construction materials, textiles and ingredients, according to their functional properties and aesthetic qualities

    DT2/1.3    Evaluate

    DT2/1.3a    investigate and analyse a range of existing products
    DT2/1.3b    evaluate their ideas and products against their own design criteria and consider the views of others to improve their work
    DT2/1.3c    understand how key events and individuals in design and technology have helped shape the world

    DT2/1.4    Technological Knowledge

    DT2/1.4a    apply their understanding of how to strengthen, stiffen and reinforce more complex structures
    DT2/1.4b    understand and use mechanical systems in their products
    DT2/1.4c    understand and use electrical systems in their products
    DT2/1.4d    apply their understanding of computing to programme, monitor and control their products.

    DT2/2.1    Cooking & Nutrition

    DT2/2.1a    understand and apply the principles of a healthy and varied diet
    DT2/2.1b    cook a repertoire of predominantly savoury dishes so that they are able to feed themselves and others a healthy and varied diet
    DT2/2.1c    become competent in a range of cooking techniques [for example, selecting and preparing ingredients; using utensils and electrical equipment; applying heat in different ways; using awareness of taste, texture and smell to decide how to season dishes and combine ingredients; adapting and using their own recipes]
    DT2/2.1c    understand the source, seasonality and characteristics of a broad range of ingredients

  • English

    En5/1    Spoken Language
    (The objectives for Spoken Language are common across Key Stages 1 and 2)

    En5/1a    listen and respond appropriately to adults and their peers 
    En5/1b    ask relevant questions to extend their understanding and knowledge
    En5/1c    use relevant strategies to build their vocabulary 
    En5/1d    articulate and justify answers, arguments and opinions 
    En5/1e    give well-structured descriptions, explanations and narratives for different purposes, including for expressing feelings. 
    En5/1f    maintain attention and participate actively in collaborative conversations, staying on topic and initiating and responding to comments
    En5/1g    use spoken language to develop understanding through speculating, hypothesising, imagining and exploring ideas 
    En5/1h    speak audibly and fluently with an increasing command of Standard English 
    En5/1i    participate in discussions, presentations, performances, roleplay/improvisations and debates 
    En5/1j    gain, maintain and monitor the interest of the listener(s) 
    En5/1k    consider and evaluate different viewpoints, attending to and building on the contributions of others 
    En5/1l    select and use appropriate registers for effective communication

    (The objectives for Reading are common across Years 5 and 6)

    En5/2.1    Word Reading

    En5/2.1a    apply their growing knowledge of root words, prefixes and suffixes (morphology and etymology), as listed in English Appendix 1, both to read aloud and to understand the meaning of new words that they meet.

    En5/2.2    Comprehension

    En5/2.2a    maintain positive attitudes to reading and an understanding of what they read by:

    1. continuing to read and discuss an increasingly wide range of fiction, poetry, plays, non-fiction and reference books or textbooks
    2. reading books that are structured in different ways and reading for a range of purposes
    3. increasing their familiarity with a wide range of books, including myths, legends and traditional stories, modern fiction, fiction from our literary heritage, and books from other cultures and traditions
    4. recommending books that they have read to their peers, giving reasons for their choices
    5. identifying and discussing themes and conventions in and across a wide range of writing
    6. making comparisons within and across books
    7. learning a wider range of poetry by heart
    8. preparing poems and plays to read aloud and to perform, showing understanding through intonation, tone and volume so that the meaning is clear to an audience

    En5/2.2b    understand what they read by

    1. checking that the book makes sense to them, discussing their understanding and exploring the meaning of words in context
    2. asking questions to improve their understanding
    3. drawing inferences such as inferring characters' feelings, thoughts and motives from their actions, and justifying inferences with evidence
    4. predicting what might happen from details stated and implied
    5. summarising the main ideas drawn from more than 1 paragraph, identifying key details that support the main ideas
    6. identifying how language, structure and presentation contribute to meaning

    En5/2.2c    discuss and evaluate how authors use language, including figurative language, considering the impact on the reader
    En5/2.2d    distinguish between statements of fact and opinion
    En5/2.2e    retrieve, record and present information from non-fiction
    En5/2.2f    participate in discussions about books that are read to them and those they can read for themselves, building on their own and others’ ideas and challenging views courteously
    En5/2.2g    explain and discuss their understanding of what they have read, including through formal presentations and debates, maintaining a focus on the topic and using notes where necessary
    En5/2.2h    provide reasoned justifications for their views.

    (The objectives for Writing are common across Years 5 and 6)

    En5/3.1    Spelling

    En5/3.1a    use further prefixes and suffixes and understand the guidance for adding them
    En5/3.1b    spell some words with ‘silent’ letters
    En5/3.1c    continue to distinguish between homophones and other words which are often confused
    En5/3.1d    use knowledge of morphology and etymology in spelling and understand that the spelling of some words needs to be learnt specifically, as listed in Appendix 1
    En5/3.1e    use dictionaries to check the spelling and meaning of words
    En5/3.1f    use the first 3 or 4 letters of a word to check spelling, meaning or both of these in a dictionary
    En5/3.1g    use a thesaurus

    En5/3.2    Handwriting and Presentation

    Pupils should be taught to write legibly , fluently and with increasing speed by:

    En5/3.2a    choosing which shape of a letter to use when given choices and deciding whether or not to join specific letters
    En5/3.2b    choosing the writing implement that is best suited for a task

    En5/3.3    Composition

    En5/3.3a    Plan their writing by:

    1. identifying the audience for and purpose of the writing, selecting the appropriate form and using other similar writing as models for their own
    2. noting and developing initial ideas, drawing on reading and research where necessary
    3. in writing narratives, considering how authors have developed characters and settings in what pupils have read, listened to or seen performed

    En5/3.3b    Draft and write by:

    1. selecting appropriate grammar and vocabulary, understanding how such choices can change and enhance meaning
    2. in narratives, describing settings, characters and atmosphere and integrating dialogue to convey character and advance the action
    3. précising longer passages
    4. using a wide range of devices to build cohesion within and across paragraphs
    5. using further organisational and presentational devices to structure text and to guide the reader

    En5/3.3c    Evaluate and edit by:

    1. assessing the effectiveness of their own and others’ writing
    2. proposing changes to vocabulary, grammar and punctuation to enhance effects and clarify meaning
    3. ensuring the consistent and correct use of tense throughout a piece of writing
    4. ensuring correct subject and verb agreement when using singular and plural, distinguishing between the language of speech and writing and choosing the appropriate register

    En5/3.3d    proofread for spelling and punctuation errors

    En5/3.3e    perform their own compositions, using appropriate intonation, volume, and movement so that meaning is clear.

    En5/3.4    Vocabulary, grammar & punctuation

    En5/3.4a    develop their understanding of the concepts set out in Appendix 2 by:

    1. recognising vocabulary and structures that are appropriate for formal speech and writing, including subjunctive forms
    2. using passive verbs to affect the presentation of information in a sentence
    3. using the perfect form of verbs to mark relationships of time and cause
    4. using expanded noun phrases to convey complicated information concisely
    5. using modal verbs or adverbs to indicate degrees of possibility
    6. using relative clauses beginning with who, which, where, when, whose, that or with an implied (ie omitted) relative pronoun
    7. learning the grammar for years 5 and 6 in Appendix 2

    En5/3.4b    indicate grammatical and other features by:

    1. using commas to clarify meaning or avoid ambiguity in writing
    2. using hyphens to avoid ambiguity
    3. using brackets, dashes or commas to indicate parenthesis
    4. using semicolons, colons or dashes to mark boundaries between independent clauses
    5. using a colon to introduce a list
    6. punctuating bullet points consistently

    En5/3.4c    use and understand the grammatical terminology in Appendix 2 accurately and appropriately in discussing their writing and reading.

  • Geography

    Ge2/1.1    Locational Knowledge

    Ge2/1.1a    locate the world’s countries, using maps to focus on Europe (including the location of Russia) and North and South America, concentrating on their environmental regions, key physical and human characteristics, countries, and major cities 
    Ge2/1.1b    name and locate counties and cities of the United Kingdom, geographical regions and their identifying human and physical characteristics, key topographical features (including hills, mountains, coasts and rivers), and land-use patterns; and understand how some of these aspects have changed over time
    Ge2/1.1c    identify the position and significance of latitude, longitude, Equator, Northern Hemisphere, Southern Hemisphere, the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, Arctic and Antarctic Circle, the Prime/Greenwich Meridian and time zones (including day and night)

    Ge2/1.2    Place Knowledge

    Ge2/1.2a    understand geographical similarities and differences through the study of human and physical geography of a region of the United Kingdom, a region in a European country, and a region in North or South America

    Ge2/1.3    Human and Physical Geography

    Ge2/1.3a    describe and understand key aspects of physical geography, including: climate zones, biomes and vegetation belts, rivers, mountains, volcanoes and earthquakes, and the water cycle
    Ge2/1.3b    describe and understand key aspects of human geography, including: types of settlement and land use, economic activity including trade links, and the distribution of natural resources including energy, food, minerals and water

    Ge2/1.4    Geographical Skills and Fieldwork

    Ge2/1.4a    use maps, atlases, globes and digital/computer mapping to locate countries and describe features studied
    Ge2/1.4b    use the 8 points of a compass, 4 and 6-figure grid references, symbols and key (including the use of Ordnance Survey maps) to build their knowledge of the United Kingdom and the wider world
    Ge2/1.4c    use fieldwork to observe, measure, record and present the human and physical features in the local area using a range of methods, including sketch maps, plans and graphs, and digital technologies.

  • History

    Hi2/1.1    Pre-Roman Britain

    Pupils should be taught about changes in Britain from the Stone Age to the Iron Age

    This could include:

    1. late Neolithic hunter-gatherers and early farmers, for example, Skara Brae 
    2. Bronze Age religion, technology and travel, for example, Stonehenge
    3. Iron Age hill forts: tribal kingdoms, farming, art and culture

    Hi2/1.2    Roman Britain

    Pupils should be taught about the Roman empire and its impact on Britain

    This could include:

    1. Julius Caesar’s attempted invasion in 55-54 BC
    2. the Roman Empire by AD 42 and the power of its army
    3. successful invasion by Claudius and conquest, including Hadrian’s Wall
    4. British resistance, for example, Boudica
    5. "Romanisation" of Britain: sites such as Caerwent and the impact of technology, culture and beliefs, including early Christianity

    Hi2/1.3    Anglo-Saxons & Scots

    Pupils should be taught about Britain’s settlement by Anglo-Saxons and Scots

    This could include:

    1. Roman withdrawal from Britain in c. AD 410 and the fall of the western Roman Empire
    2. Scots invasions from Ireland to north Britain (now Scotland)
    3. Anglo-Saxon invasions, settlements and kingdoms: place names and village life
    4. Anglo-Saxon art and culture
    5. Christian conversion – Canterbury, Iona and Lindisfarne

    Hi2/1.4    Anglo-Saxons & Vikings

    Pupils should be taught about the Viking and Anglo-Saxon struggle for the Kingdom of England to the time of Edward the Confessor
    This could include:

    1. Viking raids and invasion
    2. resistance by Alfred the Great and Athelstan, first king of England
    3. further Viking invasions and Danegeld
    4. Anglo-Saxon laws and justice
    5. Edward the Confessor and his death in 1066

    Hi2/2.1    Local History

    Pupils should be taught about an aspect of local history

    For example:

    1. a depth study linked to one of the British areas of study listed above
    2. a study over time tracing how several aspects of national history are reflected in the locality (this can go beyond 1066)
    3. a study of an aspect of history or a site dating from a period beyond 1066 that is significant in the locality.

    Hi2/2.2    Extended chronological study

    Pupils should be taught a study of an aspect or theme in British history that extends pupils’ chronological knowledge beyond 1066

    For example: 

    1. the changing power of monarchs using case studies such as John, Anne and Victoria
    2. changes in an aspect of social history, such as crime and punishment from the Anglo-Saxons to the present or leisure and entertainment in the 20th Century
    3. the legacy of Greek or Roman culture (art, architecture or literature) on later periods in British history, including the present day
    4. a significant turning point in British history, for example, the first railways or the Battle of Britain

    Hi2/2.3    Ancient Civilizations

    Pupils should be taught about the achievements of the earliest civilizations – an overview of where and when the first civilizations appeared and a depth study of one of the following:

    1. Ancient Sumer;
    2. The Indus Valley;
    3. Ancient Egypt; or
    4. The Shang Dynasty of Ancient China

    Hi2/2.4    Ancient Greece

    Pupils should be taught a study of Greek life and achievements and their influence on the western world

    Hi2/2.5    Non-European Study

    Pupils should be taught about a non-European society that provides contrasts with British history - one study chosen from: 

    1. early Islamic civilization, including a study of Baghdad c. AD 900;
    2. Mayan civilization c. AD 900; or

    Benin (West Africa) c. AD 900-1300

  • Languages

    Note that the curriculum aims state that: Teaching may be of any modern or ancient foreign language and should focus on enabling pupils to make substantial progress in one language.

    FL2/1.1    Listening & Comprehension

    FL2/1.1a    listen attentively to spoken language and show understanding by joining in and responding
    FL2/1.1b    explore the patterns and sounds of language through songs and rhymes and link the spelling, sound and meaning of words

    FL2/1.2    Speaking

    FL2/1.2a    engage in conversations; ask and answer questions; express opinions and respond to those of others; seek clarification and help*
    FL2/1.2b    speak in sentences, using familiar vocabulary, phrases and basic language structures
    FL2/1.2c    develop accurate pronunciation and intonation so that others understand when they are reading aloud or using familiar words and phrases*
    FL2/1.2d    present ideas and information orally to a range of audiences*

    FL2/1.3    Reading & Comprehension

    FL2/1.3a    read carefully and show understanding of words, phrases and simple writing
    FL2/1.3b    appreciate stories, songs, poems and rhymes in the language
    FL2/1.3c    broaden their vocabulary and develop their ability to understand new words that are introduced into familiar written material, including through using a dictionary

    FL2/1.4    Writing

    FL2/1.4a    write phrases from memory, and adapt these to create new sentences, to express ideas clearly
    FL2/1.4b    describe people, places, things and actions orally* and in writing
    FL2/1.4c    understand basic grammar appropriate to the language being studied, including (where relevant): feminine, masculine and neuter forms and the conjugation of high-frequency verbs; key features and patterns of the language; how to apply these, for instance, to build sentences; and how these differ from or are similar to English.

  • Maths

    Ma5/2.1    Number & Place Value

    Ma5/2.1a    read, write, order and compare numbers to at least 1,000,000 and determine the value of each digit
    Ma5/2.1b    count forwards or backwards in steps of powers of 10 for any given number up to 1,000,000
    Ma5/2.1c    interpret negative numbers in context, count forwards and backwards with positive and negative whole numbers, including through 0
    Ma5/2.1d    round any number up to 1,000,000 to the nearest 10, 100, 1,000, 10,000 and 100,000
    Ma5/2.1e    solve number problems and practical problems that involve all of the above
    Ma5/2.1f    read Roman numerals to 1,000 (M) and recognise years written in Roman numerals.

    Ma5/2.2    Addition & Subtraction

    Ma5/2.2a    add and subtract whole numbers with more than 4 digits,including using formal written methods (columnar addition and subtraction)
    Ma5/2.2b    add and subtract numbers mentally with increasingly large numbers
    Ma5/2.2c    use rounding to check answers to calculations and determine, in the context of a problem, levels of accuracy
    Ma5/2.2d    solve addition and subtraction multi-step problems in contexts, deciding which operations and methods to use and why.

    Ma5/2.3    Multiplication & Division

    Ma5/2.3a    identify multiples and factors, including finding all factor pairs of a number, and common factors of two numbers.
    Ma5/2.3b    know and use the vocabulary of prime numbers, prime factors and composite (non-prime) numbers
    Ma5/2.3c    establish whether a number up to 100 is prime and recall prime numbers up to 19
    Ma5/2.3d    multiply numbers up to 4 digits by a one- or two-digit number using a formal written method, including long multiplication for two-digit numbers 
    Ma5/2.3e   multiply and divide numbers mentally drawing upon known facts
    Ma5/2.3f    divide numbers up to 4 digits by a one-digit number using the formal written method of short division and interpret remainders appropriately for the context
    Ma5/2.3g    multiply and divide whole numbers and those involving decimals by 10, 100 and 1,000
    Ma5/2.3h    recognise and use square numbers and cube numbers, and the notation for squared (2) and cubed (3)
    Ma5/2.3i    solve problems involving multiplication and division, including using their knowledge of factors and multiples, squares and cubes
    Ma5/2.3j    solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division and a combination of these, including understanding the meaning of the equals sign
    Ma5/2.3k    solve problems involving multiplication and division, including scaling by simple fractions and problems involving simple rates.

    Ma5/2.4    Fractions (decimals & percentages)

    Ma5/2.4a    compare and order fractions whose denominators are all multiples of the same number
    Ma5/2.4b    identify, name and write equivalent fractions of a given fraction, represented visually, including tenths and hundredths
    Ma5/2.4c    recognise mixed numbers and improper fractions and convert from one form to the other and write mathematical statements > 1 as a mixed number
    Ma5/2.4d    add and subtract fractions with the same denominator and denominators that are multiples of the same number
    Ma5/2.4e    multiply proper fractions and mixed numbers by whole numbers, supported by materials and diagrams
    Ma5/2.4f    read and write decimal numbers as fractions
    Ma5/2.4g    recognise and use thousandths and relate them to tenths, hundredths and decimal equivalents
    Ma5/2.4h    round decimals with 2 decimal places to the nearest whole number and to 1 decimal place
    Ma5/2.4i    read, write, order and compare numbers with up to 3 decimal places
    Ma5/2.4j    solve problems involving number up to 3 decimal places
    Ma5/2.4k    recognise the per cent symbol (%) and understand that per cent relates to “number of parts per 100”, and write percentages as a fraction with denominator 100, and as a decimal fraction
    Ma5/2.4l    solve problems which require knowing percentage and decimal equivalents of 1/2, 1/4, 1/5, 2/5, 4/5 and fractions with a denominator of a multiple of 10 or 25.

    Ma5/3.1    Measurement

    Ma5/3.1a    convert between different units of metric measure
    Ma5/3.1b    understand and use approximate equivalences between metric units and common imperial units such as inches, pounds and pints
    Ma5/3.1c    measure and calculate the perimeter of composite rectilinear shapes in centimetres and metres
    Ma5/3.1d    calculate and compare the area of rectangles (including squares) including using standard units, square centimetres (cm2) and square metres (m2) and estimate the area of irregular shapes
    Ma5/3.1e    estimate volume and capacity
    Ma5/3.1f    solve problems involving converting between units of time
    Ma5/3.1g    use all four operations to solve problems involving measure using decimal notation including scaling.

    Ma5/3.2    Properties of Shape

    Ma5/3.2a    identify 3-D shapes, including cubes and other cuboids, from 2-D representations
    Ma5/3.2b    know angles are measured in degrees: estimate and compare acute, obtuse and reflex angles
    Ma5/3.2c    draw given angles, and measure them in degrees (o)
    Ma5/3.2d    identify:

    • angles at a point and 1 whole turn (total 360o)
    • angles at a point on a straight line and half a turn (total 180o)
    • other multiples of 90o

    Ma5/3.2e    use the properties of rectangles to deduce related facts and find missing lengths and angles
    Ma5/3.2f    distinguish between regular and irregular polygons based on reasoning about equal sides and angles.

    Ma5/3.3    Position & Direction

    Ma5/3.3a    identify, describe and represent the position of a shape following a reflection or translation, using the appropriate language, and know that the shape has not changed.

    Ma5/4.1    Statistics

    Ma5/4.1a    solve comparison, sum and difference problems using information presented in a line graph
    Ma5/4.1b    complete, read and interpret information in tables, including timetables.

  • Music

    Pupils should be taught to:

    • Mu2/1.1    play and perform in solo and ensemble contexts, using their voices and playing musical instruments with increasing accuracy, fluency, control and expression
    • Mu2/1.2    improvise and compose music for a range of purposes using the interrelated dimensions of music
    • Mu2/1.3    listen with attention to detail and recall sounds with increasing aural memory
    • Mu2/1.4    use and understand staff and other musical notations
    • Mu2/1.5    appreciate and understand a wide range of high-quality live and recorded music drawn from different traditions and from great composers and musicians
    • Mu2/1.6    develop an understanding of the history of music.
  • PE

    PE2/1.1    Sport & Games

    PE2/1.1a    use running, jumping, throwing and catching in isolation and in combination
    PE2/1.1b    play competitive games, modified where appropriate, and apply basic principles suitable for attacking and defending
    PE2/1.1c    develop flexibility, strength, technique, control and balance
    PE2/1.1d    perform dances using a range of movement patterns 
    PE2/1.1e    take part in outdoor and adventurous activity challenges both individually and within a team
    PE2/1.1f    compare their performances with previous ones and demonstrate improvement to achieve their personal best.

    PE2/1.2    Swimming and water safety

    All schools must provide swimming instruction either in key stage 1 or key stage 2.

    In particular, pupils should be taught to:

    PE2/1.2a    swim competently, confidently and proficiently over a distance of at least 25 metres
    PE2/1.2b    use a range of strokes effectively
    PE2/1.2c    perform safe self-rescue in different water-based situations.

  • Science

    Sc5/1    Working Scientifically
    During years 5 and 6, pupils should be taught to use the following practical scientific methods, processes and skills through the teaching of the programme of study content:

    Sc5/1.1    planning different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions, including recognising and controlling variables where necessary
    Sc5/1.2    taking measurements, using a range of scientific equipment, with increasing accuracy and precision
    Sc5/1.3    recording data and results of increasing complexity using scientific diagrams and labels, classification keys, tables, and bar and line graphs
    Sc5/1.4    using test results to make predictions to set up further comparative and fair tests
    Sc5/1.5    reporting and presenting findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and explanations of results, in oral and written forms such as displays and other presentations
    Sc5/1.6    identifying scientific evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas or arguments.

    Sc5/2.1    Living Things and their habitats

    Sc5/2.1a    describe the differences in the life cycles of a mammal, an amphibian, an insect and a bird
    Sc5/2.1b    describe the life process of reproduction in some plants and animals.

    Sc5/2.2    Animals, including humans

    Sc5/2.2a    describe the changes as humans develop to old age.

    Sc5/3.1    Properties and Changes of Materials

    Sc5/3.1a    compare and group together everyday materials on the basis of their properties, including their hardness, solubility, transparency, conductivity (electrical and thermal), and response to magnets 
    Sc5/3.1b    know that some materials will dissolve in liquid to form a solution, and describe how to recover a substance from a solution 
    Sc5/3.1c      use knowledge of solids, liquids and gases to decide how mixtures might be separated, including through filtering, sieving and evaporating 
    Sc5/3.1d    give reasons, based on evidence from comparative and fair tests, for the particular uses of everyday materials, including metals, wood and plastic
    Sc5/3.1e    demonstrate that dissolving, mixing and changes of state are reversible changes
    Sc5/3.1f    explain that some changes result in the formation of new materials, and that this kind of change is not usually reversible, including changes associated with burning and the action of acid on bicarbonate of soda.

    Sc5/4.1    Earth and Space

    Sc5/4.1a    describe the movement of the Earth, and other planets, relative to the Sun in the solar system
    Sc5/4.1b    describe the movement of the Moon relative to the Earth
    Sc5/4.1c    describe the Sun, Earth and Moon as approximately spherical bodies
    Sc5/4.1d    use the idea of the Earth’s rotation to explain day and night, and the apparent movement of the sun across the sky.

    Sc5/4.2    Forces

    Sc5/4.2a    explain that unsupported objects fall towards the Earth because of the force of gravity acting between the Earth and the falling object
    Sc5/4.2b    identify the effects of air resistance, water resistance and friction, that act between moving surfaces
    Sc5/4.2c    recognise that some mechanisms including levers, pulleys and gears allow a smaller force to have a greater effect